(HOW TO ENRICH VOCABULARY) Vocabulary is the number of correct words known to a person. Without the use of correct/meaningful words, no communication is possible. As the main function of language is to communicate, it is our duty to tell our students the right use of words. A suitable word should come automatically while speaking or writing a composition. Hence the need for rich vocabulary.
While teaching vocabulary, words should be properly selected and graded keeping in mind their usefulness, structural value, frequency, and simplicity. The level of the children should also be kept in mind.

Vocabulary is of two types

Active vocabulary and Passive vocabulary. The active vocabulary of a person consists of those words, which he can use correctly in his own speech and writing. He fully understands the meanings of those words. The passive vocabulary of a person consists of those words, which he recognizes and understands when he meets them in print or in the speech of others, but he does not have sufficient mastery to use them in his own speech and writing.

How to Develop Vocabulary?

While giving devices to develop the vocabulary of the students the teacher should keep in mind the level of the children and he/she should proceed from known to unknown and simple to complex.

A. Devices:

1 . By showing real objects- Start from the familiar, real-life situation i.e. the classroom objects e.g. blackboard, table, chair, books, fans, desks, benches, door, window, etc. And then outside the classroom but in the school premises e.g. trees, playground, laboratory, office, teachers, peon, etc.
2 . Model/ Pictures/ Drawing on the blackboard- Objects that are not visible directly or can not be brought in the classroom should be presented in the form of models or pictures e.g. fruits, vegetables, animals, means of transport, etc.
3. Words of courtesies/commands/greetings Words of courtesies should be the part of daily routine. The teacher himself/ herself should observe these courtesies and encourage the children to do the same e.g.
Courtesies- Thank you, Sorry, Excuse me, Please.
Commands- Open your books, Sit down, Come here.
Greetings- Good morning, Happy Birthday, Congratulations etc.
4. Action words
These words can be introduced by doing the suitable action e.g. walking. jumping, dancing, cutting etc.
5. Series and scales
Examples of series are-
Days in a week.
Months in a year.
Examples of scales are-
Parts of a body.
Parts of a plant.
6. By adding Prefix and Suffix e.g.
New words are formed by adding prefixes and suffixes to the existing words. Prefix:
re- (form, join, fund, new)
bi- (cycle. sect. lingual. focal)
ness (kind, dark, sick, good)
ful (use, joy, hope, fruit)
Kindness, darkness, sickness, goodness.
7. Grouping of words:
Different groups can be formed to include the related words e.g.
group word                                 words related to the group
Family………………………………. mother, father, brother, sister…
House ……………………………….kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, courtyard…
Colours………………………………red, blue, yellow, green…
Vegetables …………………………potato, tomato, brinzal, cauliflower… .
Fruits………………………………… Mango, apple, orange, banana…

B . Activities to expand vocabulary

1 Reading-
Reading is the most effective method of increasing vocabulary. Children should be encouraged to read storybooks, magazines, and newspapers individually or in pairs. They should also be advised to consult a dictionary whenever they come across unfamiliar words.
2. Small Trips
Small trips to a nearby post office, railway station, agriculture farm, or a hospital can be organized whenever it is feasible. Students should carry their notebooks with them and note all possible new things they come across. These words should be reinforced in the classroom discussion later on.
3. One-word substitution
Divide the class into two groups A and B. The teacher should write on the blackboard some phrases or groups of words that can be expressed by a single word. Students from both groups should come by turn and write the suitable one word for a group of words. The right word should be awarded marks. The whole class should be involved in this activity. A few examples are
1 . One who eats vegetables- vegetarian.
2.  One who eats vegetables and animals food- non-vegetarian.
3. Place where birds and animals are kept-Zoo
 4. Animals, which live in water- aquatic.
 5. Blank book for photographs- album.

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